2013年11月30日 星期六

Tire

For other uses, see Tire (disambiguation). "Inner tube" redirects here. For the swimming device, see swim ring. Stacked and standing car tires A tire (American English) or tyre (British English),[1] is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheel's rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road while providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fabric and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical compounds. They consist of a tread and a body. The tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were simply bands of metal that fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Early rubber tires were solid (not pneumatic). Today, the majority of tires are pneumatic inflatable structures, comprising a doughnut-shaped body of cords and wires encased in rubber and generally filled with compressed air to form an inflatable cushion. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, bicycles, motorcycles, trucks, earthmovers, and aircraft. Metal tires are still used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber (or other polymer) tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, carts, lawnmowers, and wheelbarrows.

2013年11月2日 星期六

Car Rental

AVIS Rent A Car
Leading car hire company, AVIS, has launched operation in Taiwan! Avis Taiwan aims to serve as "one-stop" mobility solution for the Taiwan community through our world-class services that include self-drive car rental and chauffer-drive transfer services using the new and state-of-the-art fleet.
CARPLUS

Chailease Auto Rental
Chailease Auto Rental offers professional and friendly English speakers both in short term rental and longer term leasing, as well as our vehicle service department. Our short term services locate at 3 major cities, Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung. Customers can pick-up and drop-off the rental car either at airports or in hotels. Our long term service has been provided to The island wide.
Gharry Car Rental
TPE Airport Shuttle, Taipei Car Hire, Taiwan Car Rental ( For those who are not familiar with the road conditions, it is recommended to rent a car with a driver.)
HOTAI Leasing Corporation (HLC)

LimoLimo
ORIX Auto Leasing Taiwan Corporation
ORIX Auto Leasing Taiwan Corporation is one oversea company of Japanese ORIX Group. ORIX provides corporate leasing, personal leasing, car rental, airport pick-up, business trip, travel visiting and limousine services in Taiwan.

2013年10月1日 星期二

進口車“暴利”到底進了誰的口袋之二

律師:不一定存在壟斷行為

  上海泛洋律師事務所高級合夥人劉春泉、北京天地和律師事務所合夥人律師鄧志松昨日表示,價格國內外存在明顯差異,廠商賺取了更多利潤,並不代表一定存在壟斷行為。這一現象可以套用我國《反壟斷法》第十七條的第一款來分析。該款規定,禁止具有市場支配地位的經營者以不公平的高價銷售商品或者以不公平的低價購買商品。

  扣除稅收因素後,豪華進口車在國內售價仍比國外高出數倍,這可以被視作“不公平的高價”,但仍有前提條件,即必須是“具有市場支配地位的經營者”的這一行為才被法律禁止。假如不具備市場支配地位,定價再高也是市場自由行為。而《反壟斷法》第十九條規定,“一個經營者在相關市場的市場份額達到二分之一的,可以推定經營者具有市場支配地位。”

  而目前,奧迪、寶馬和賓士,都沒有在豪華轎車市場上佔到50%的市場份額,其餘豪華車品牌市場份額更小,因此兩位律師認為對於進口車商因壟斷而造成的車價過高指責並不成立。

  網友:有些車來中國裝豪車

  近日,記者查看了多個汽車論壇,發現消費者對於中國豪車的高價並不吃驚。“已經不是一天兩天了,早就知道了。還是機制的問題吧”一位叫侯子的網友說。而另一位叫瓦哩的網友則表示:“現在有錢也不一定在國內買,有很多其他來源的車,你懂的。”也有一些車主說:“有些很一般的車,也來中國裝豪車,照樣大把人買,這就是中國有錢人的消費習慣——只買貴的,不買對的。而且,有錢的人,也不會在乎這個。”據記者了解,由於新聞剛出才幾天,目前廣州的豪車市場還沒有明顯變化。

  記者觀察:行業缺乏穩定價格杠桿

  儘管價格上沒有接軌國際,但由於中國消費者的“執著”,這邊不滿國外廠商“店大欺客”,那邊卻又有新的人群加入購買進口車大軍的隊伍,甚至不惜加價排隊等車。在終端市場上,進口車加價十幾萬和大幅降價幾十萬這兩種極端的現象更是常有上演。

  可以說,進口車價居高不下,代理商與高關稅應各打五十大板。可是目前行業內的現狀是缺乏一個穩定控制價格的杠桿,在關稅與廠商利潤決定了車價的大前提下,市場競爭就成了影響車價走向的第三個重要原因。汽車製造業是一個發展了百年的成熟產業,車輛的價格並不是廠商或者經銷商“壟斷”得了的。如果一家車企靠抬高價格來“牟取暴利”,那麼它的下場就是被競爭對手用更具性價比的同類產品擠出市場。

  他山之石 在中東買勞斯萊斯

  不需承擔任何額外費用

  有廠商表示,南韓的進口關稅約在7%~8%左右,日本則更低,而中國市場則相對高很多。勞斯萊斯亞太區總裁克林此前在深圳車展接受記者採訪時曾表示:“在美國,勞斯萊斯轎車只會在原價的基礎上加15%的稅,而在中東地區,消費者在購買勞斯萊斯時,甚至可以不需要承擔任何額外費用。

2013年9月9日 星期一

進口車“暴利”到底進了誰的口袋之一

近日,有媒體報道稱,不少在售進口車型的國內售價為國外售價的2~3倍,而國內的進口車價格之所以高企不下,除了高關稅以外,更重要的原因是廠商壟斷價格以牟取暴利。中國“入世”以後,中國車主本來可以享受到更多與世界同步的車型,卻要付出比國外消費者多幾倍的“血汗錢”,進口車的暴利到底進了誰的口袋?是高關稅還是廠商代理商的壟斷定價?本期“汽車週刊”,資訊時報記者不僅蒐羅了目前國內外市場最新在售車型的價格作對比,更蒐集多方聲音一同來揭秘這個處於風口浪尖的謎題。
  現狀—— 降低關稅後,車價仍翻3倍
  記者了解到,在2001年加入WTO前,中國的汽車關稅稅率曾高達70%~80%,直至中國2001年,作為加入WTO的先決條件,中國宣佈將在5年之後降低關稅稅率至25%,也就是說,到2006年,中國的進口車關稅稅率實際上已經由之前的70%~80%降低至25%。
  但有意思的是:進口關稅從原來的80%降到了現在的25%,曾一度高達10萬元的進口車許可證被取消了,人民幣不斷升值。如此多的利好條件,進口車的價格不降反漲。
  以4.4L的2014款寶馬M6 Gran Coupe基本版車型為例,這款車在北美售價為115225美元(約合人民幣約72.6萬元),記者在寶馬官網上查詢該車型指導價為239.5萬元人民幣。售價翻倍約在3.2倍左右。
  再來看看排量在4.0L以下的車型情況,2014款奧迪Q7在北美最新售價為46800美元(約合人民幣29.5萬元),而這款車型在國內的起步指導價為82.7萬元人民幣。入華後在國內售價翻倍分別為2.8倍。
  算賬—— 進口車要交的稅費貴過車價
  中國稅務報總編輯近日發文回應:單從表面上看,中國關稅是25%,其實並不算非常離譜。但是除此之外,進口汽車還要交納17%的增值稅,以及最高為40%的消費稅(消費稅根據排氣量的不同在1%~40%間浮動,其中排氣量3.0~4.0之間為25%,排氣量4.0升以上為40%),疊加計算的話,汽車進口到岸綜合稅率(關稅+消費稅+增值稅)為47.7%~143.7%,其中排氣量3.0升~4.0升區間的綜合稅率為95.4%,排氣量4.0升以上的綜合稅率為143.7%。所以完稅價=到岸價格+關稅+消費稅+增值稅。
  接下來,資訊時報記者就以凱迪拉克品牌下的凱雷德2010款6.0 Hybrid為例計算。目前這款凱雷德標配車在國內的廠家指導價為139.8萬元,而此款車在原產地美國的售價,標配價格為73425美元。扣除毛利,一輛車出廠價約為7萬美元,折合人民幣約為45萬元。加上海外運輸成本(包括海運和美國當地運輸)等約為2000美元(約為1.3萬元人民幣),此款凱雷德到岸價則為46.3萬元人民幣。需要繳納關稅11.58萬元,消費稅38.58萬元,增值稅16.4萬元。在繳納完25%的關稅、40%的消費稅和17%的增值稅之後,成本價已攀升至112.86萬元。而辦理商檢等各種報關手續也需要一定的費用,大概在2萬元左右,至於國內運輸、倉儲等費用則約為1萬元。
  由此可以算出,一輛凱雷德2010款6.0 Hybrid其成本價大概為115.86萬元人民幣,到達國內代理商定價前,減去車型本身的出廠價45萬元,該車型稅費加上各項費用成本為70.86萬元,也即相當於車價的1.5倍左右。
  300萬元左右的豪車 代理商利潤最高可達50萬
  按照我國的汽車品牌銷售管理辦法,進口車銷售需獲得廠家授權,而各汽車企業在華設立的投資公司,即是該品牌進口車在中國的總經銷商。“由於實現了對進口車資源、渠道及定價的全面決定權,作為進口車經營鏈條的全面掌控者是有理由為自己預留了豐厚的利潤。”一位接近某品牌中國總經銷人士透露道,“刨去關稅,一台國內零售價在250萬~320萬的進口車,總代理最高可獲得50多萬元的利潤。”
  由於近年來進口車市場被國內高消費潛力全面打開,幾乎大部分的跨國公司在中國的進口車業務都是盈利的,而且利潤率遠遠高於歐洲和美國市場。以2012年進口車銷量增速排名第一的捷豹路虎為例,其全年共賣出7.33萬輛車,毛利潤超過350億元人民幣,國產車企業的利潤與之相比,相差懸殊。
  200多萬元的豪車 經銷商每台車最多賺20萬
  一位不願具名的日係進口車商坦言“經銷商賺的並沒有收的稅多”。以雷克薩斯LS600hL為例,他說:“國內售價238萬元左右的雷克薩斯LS600hL,每台經銷商能賺到的利潤大概有26萬元,但現在的市場狀況早已不允許鐵打的價格不跳水,這款車型目前普遍的優惠都有8~10萬元以上,這樣一來經銷商可賺的就更少了。”
  而從目前的情況看,總代理批發給經銷商的車價中已經加上運費、管理費、豪華4S店的建設費,在車價受到市場競爭而下滑時,國內經銷商的利潤就變相縮水。

2013年8月31日 星期六

Car

For other types of motorized vehicles, see Motor vehicle. For other uses, see Car (disambiguation), Automobile (disambiguation), and Cars (disambiguation).
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Car
Benz-velo.jpg
Benz "Velo" model (1894) by German inventor Carl Benz – entered into an early automobile race as a motocycle[1][2]
Classification Vehicle
Industry Various
Application Transportation
Fuel source Gasoline, Diesel, Electric, Hydrogen, Solar energy
Powered Yes
Self-propelled Yes
Wheels 3–4
Axles 1–2
Inventor Ferdinand Verbiest

Vehicles in use per country from 2001 to 2007. It shows the significant growth in BRIC.

World map of passenger cars per 1000 people
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of the term specify that cars are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.[3][4] The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other less-developed parts of the world.
Cars are equipped with controls used for driving, parking, and passenger comfort and safety. New controls have also been added to vehicles, making them more complex. Examples include air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use today are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by deflagration of gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel. Both fuels are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming.[5] Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries.
Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide.[6] The costs of car usage, which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle, repairs and auto maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance,[7] are weighed against the cost of the alternatives, and the value of the benefits – perceived and real – of vehicle usage. The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence and convenience.[8] The costs to society of encompassing car use, which may include those of: maintaining roads, land use, pollution, public health, health care, and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life, can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that car use generates. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits, such as job and wealth creation, of car production and maintenance, transportation provision, society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.[9]

2013年8月16日 星期五

What Is Love?

Why Do We Ask, “What Is Love?”

Whenever we ask, “What is love?” it’s usually because a) we’re unsure if a certain special someone really loves us, or b) because a certain special someone just accused us of not really loving them.
When we are truly engaged in giving and receiving love, we don’t ponder such philosophical questions. It’s only when something is lacking that we begin to analyze and contemplate what that thing actually is. For example, nobody sits down to a full meal and asks, “What is a pastrami sandwich?”
It’s only when something is lacking that we begin to analyze and contemplate what that thing actually isSo, if we’re even asking the question, “What is love?” it probably means that we don’t feel completely loved, or that someone doesn’t feel completely loved by us.
But since we’re asking, let’s try to answer the question.

“Am I Loved?” Vs. “Do I Love?”

The two scenarios that usually cause us to contemplate “What is love?” give meaning to the question. Either we wonder, “Am I loved?” or we ask, “Do I love?”
It is easier to first address the “What is love?” question in terms of the love we feel coming toward us. If we understand how to recognize when we are being loved, we can also learn to recognize our love for another.
When we are loved, we tend to feel it intuitively in our guts. But how does it work? Is there an extrasensory perception in the heart that is able to read the feelings in another person’s heart?
In fact, it’s really not that ethereal or supernatural. On the contrary, it’s pretty practical and down-to-earth. Our hearts take cues from our senses. Everything we see, hear, taste, touch or smell teaches us about our universe. We don’t need to contemplate or ask questions. Our sensory organs report to our brains, and our brains interpret the data and send the report to our hearts. So, if we see a loving smile, hear loving words, or feel a loving touch, the brain processes this information and concludes, “Hey, we are being loved right now!”
In short, when we are loved, there is tangible proof. It’s not an abstract thought or feeling, it’s concrete and evidenced. As KingSolomon wrote in his book of Proverbs (27:19), “As water reflects a man’s face back to him, so is the heart of one man to another.” This means, when you are treated with love, your heart feels that love. 

Love is an Action

Now we can address the second part of the “What is love” quandary—how to know if we love someone else?
The answer is straightforward. When we behave lovingly towards someone, it means we love that person.
When we ask a question like “What is love?” we assume that we’re trying to define an abstract concept similar to “What is freedom?” or “What is good fortune?” But truthfully, love is not a concept. It’s an action.
To ask, “What is love?” is like asking, “What is running?” or “What is swimming?” If you’ve ever seen someone run or swim, you know exactly what running and swimming entail.
In order for love to be real love, it has to be expressed as an actionThe Hebrew word for love,ahavah, reveals this true definition of love, for the wordahavah is built upon the root consonants h‑v, which means “to give.” In order for love to be real love, it has to be expressed as an action. If you love your beloved, then you must show it. By the same token, if you are loved, that will show, too. You will recognize it by the way you are treated.

G‑d Teaches Us How to Love

G‑d commands us (Deut. 6:5), “And you shall love the L‑rd your G‑d.” This precept leads us to voice the age-old question, “How can we be commanded to feel a feeling?” Either you feel it or you don’t, right?
An answer offered by our tradition explains that we are not being ordered to feel a feeling in the abstract sense. Rather, the command is for us to behave lovingly. In this light, “And you shall love,” actually means, “You shall perform acts of love.”
This is the true test: action, deeds, performance.
Feelings can be deceptive. Sometimes, what we perceive as love may in fact be another emotion. But actions cannot be mistaken. So, rather than ask, “What is love?” we must ask, “Do I perform acts of love for my beloved?” and “Does my beloved perform acts of love for me?”

2013年8月13日 星期二

basic knowledge about vehicle engine

What is horsepower?· What horsepower is not is how much power your engine makes at high rpm… engines make horsepower everywhere within their operating range. Horsepower numbers are typically quoted at high rpms because the horsepower number is bigger than the torque number above 5,250 rpm and everyone wants to talk about the biggest number they can. 
· Horsepower is the work your engine performs… it is how quickly your engine can produce power. Think of it as how quickly you can turn a torque wrench at a given setting a dozen times rather than what the setting on the wrench for a single pull is.
· Because of the dense calibration sets in the Unichip your engine will make the most horsepower it’s capable of at every rpm.
What is torque?
· What torque is not is how much power your engine makes at low rpm… engines make torque everywhere within their operating range. Torque numbers are typically normally talked about lower in the rpm range because the torque value is always bigger than the bhp number below 5,250 rpm and everyone want to talk about the biggest number they can.
· Torque is the power your engine produces… it is literally the force your engine’s flywheel is experiencing and which is being transmitted through the vehicle’s driveline to the tires. Think of it as how hard you can twist a torque wrench on one pull.
· Because of the dense calibration sets in the Unichip your engine will make the most torque it’s capable of at every rpm.